App

Castellammarese War-Wikipedia

Castellammarese War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigation

Jump to search

Italian-American Mafia war
Castellammarese War
Date February, 1930 – April 15, 1931
Location

New York City

,

New York

, U.S.

Caused by

Crime syndicate

control dispute

Resulted in Maranzano’s faction victory:

  • Creation of the

    Five Families

    • Maranzano

    • Profaci

    • Mangano

    • Luciano

    • Gagliano

  • Salvatore Maranzano

    declares himself

    Capo di tutti i capi

Parties to the civil conflict
Masseria Faction
Maranzano Faction
Lead figures

Joe Masseria

 

Giuseppe Morello

 

Lucky Luciano

Albert Anastasia

Vito Genovese

Manfredi Mineo

 

Willie Moretti

Joe Adonis

Frank Costello

Carlo Gambino

Salvatore Maranzano

Joseph Bonanno

Vito Bonventre

 

Stefano Magaddino

Joe Profaci

Joe Aiello

 

Gaetano Reina

 

Tommy Gagliano

Tommy Lucchese

Nicolo Schiro

The Castellammarese War (Italian pronunciation: 

[kaˌstɛllammaːˈreze]

) was a bloody power struggle for control of the

Italian-American Mafia

that took place in

New York City

,

New York

, from February 1930 until April 15, 1931, between partisans of

Joe “The Boss” Masseria

and those of

Salvatore Maranzano

. The war was named after the Sicilian town of

Castellammare del Golfo

, the birthplace of Maranzano.

[1]

Maranzano’s faction won and divided New York’s crime families into the

Five Families

; Maranzano declared himself

capo di tutti i capi

(“boss of all bosses”). However, Maranzano was murdered in September 1931 on orders of

Lucky Luciano

, who established a power-sharing arrangement called

the Commission

, a group of Mafia families of equal stature, to avoid such wars in the future.

Background[

edit

]

In the 1920s,

Mafia operations in the United States

were controlled by

Giuseppe “Joe The Boss” Masseria

, whose faction consisted mainly of gangsters from

Sicily

and the

Calabria

and

Campania

regions of southern Italy. Masseria’s faction included

Charles “Lucky” Luciano

,

Albert “Mad Hatter” Anastasia

,

Vito Genovese

,

Alfred Mineo

,

Willie Moretti

,

Joe Adonis

, and

Frank Costello

. However, powerful Sicilian

Don

Vito Ferro

decided to make a bid for control of Mafia operations. He sent

Salvatore Maranzano

from his base in

Castellammare del Golfo

to seize control.

[2]

The Castellammarese faction in the U.S. included

Joseph “Joe Bananas” Bonanno

,

Stefano “The Undertaker” Magaddino

,

Joseph Profaci

, and

Joe Aiello

.

[3]

As it became more and more evident that the two factions would clash for leadership of the Mafia, they each sought to recruit more followers to support them.

[4]

Outwardly, the Castellammarese War was between the forces of Masseria and Maranzano.

[5]

Underneath, however, there was also a generational conflict between the old guard Sicilian leadership – known as the “

Mustache Petes

” for their long mustaches and old-world ways, such as refusing to do business with non-Italians – and the “Young Turks”, a younger and more diverse

Italian-American

group who, unlike the “Mustache Petes”, had grown up in the U.S., were more forward-thinking, and were willing to work with non-Italians. This approach led Masseria’s followers to question whether he was even capable of making the Mafia prosper in the world of the 1930s. Led by Luciano, the aim of this group was to end the war as soon as possible in order to resume their businesses, viewing the conflict as unnecessary. Luciano’s objective was to modernize the mob and do away with unnecessary orthodox norms.

[6]

This was a vision that enabled Luciano to attract followers, who had seen the inadequacies of Masseria’s traditionalist leadership. Therefore, both factions were fluid, with many mobsters switching sides or killing their own allies during the war.

[7]

[8]

Tensions between the Maranzano and Masseria factions were evident as far back as 1928, with one side frequently

hijacking

the other’s alcohol trucks (alcohol production being illegal in the U.S. at that time due to

Prohibition

).

Xem thêm: Douluo Continent (2021)-MyDramaList

Hostilities begin[

edit

]

As the war became more violent, gunmen clashed on the streets of

New York City

. According to Bonanno, in February 1930 Masseria ordered the death of

Gaspar Milazzo

, a Castellemmarese native who was the president of

Detroit

‘s chapter of

Unione Siciliana

. Masseria had reportedly been humiliated by Milazzo’s refusal to support him in a Unione Siciliana dispute involving the

Chicago Outfit

and

Al Capone

.

[9]

The opening salvo in the war was fired within the Masseria faction when, on February 26, 1930, Masseria ordered the murder of an ally,

Gaetano Reina

.

[10]

Masseria gave the job to a young Genovese, who killed Reina with a shotgun.

[11]

Masseria’s intent was to protect his secret allies

Tommy Gagliano

,

Tommy Lucchese

, and Dominick “The Gap” Petrilli. Later his treachery would come back to haunt him, as the Reina family then threw its support behind Maranzano.

Vito Bonventre

also became a target, as Castellammarese-born members of

Nicolo Schiro

‘s gang began to threaten Masseria’s domination over Mafia gangs. Masseria forced Schiro to pay him

US$

10,000 and step down as

boss

of the gang.

[12]

On July 15, 1930, Bonventre was gunned down outside his garage.

[13]

[14]

Trading blows[

edit

]

On August 15, 1930, Castellammerese loyalists executed a key Masseria enforcer,

Giuseppe Morello

, at Morello’s

East Harlem

office (a visitor, Giuseppe Peraino, was also killed).

[15]

Two weeks later, Masseria suffered another blow. After Reina’s murder, Masseria had appointed

Joseph Pinzolo

to take over the ice-distribution

racket

.

[10]

However, on September 9, the Reina family shot and killed Pinzolo at a

Times Square

office rented by Lucchese. After these two murders, the Reina crew formally joined forces with the Castellammarese.

[16]

Masseria soon struck back. On October 23, 1930, Castellammarese ally Joe Aiello, president of the Chicago Unione Siciliane, was murdered in Chicago.

[9]

The tide turns[

edit

]

Following the murder of Aiello, the tide of war rapidly turned in favor of the Castellammarese. On November 5, 1930, Mineo and a key member of Masseria’s gang,

Steve Ferrigno

, were murdered.

[17]

Francesco Scalice

inherited control of Mineo’s gang and subsequently defected to the Maranzano faction. At this point, many other members of Masseria’s gang also began defecting to Maranzano, rendering the original battle lines of the conflict (Castellammarese versus non-Castellammarese) meaningless. On February 3, 1931, another important Masseria lieutenant,

Joseph Catania

, was gunned down, dying two days later.

[18]

Given the worsened situation, Masseria allies Luciano and Genovese started communicating with Castellammarese leader Maranzano. The two men agreed to betray Masseria if Maranzano would end the war. A deal was struck, based on which Luciano would arrange for Masseria to be murdered and Maranzano would bring the Castellammarese War to an end.

[19]

On April 15, 1931, Masseria was killed at Nuova Villa Tammaro, a restaurant in

Coney Island, Brooklyn

. While they played cards, Luciano allegedly excused himself to the bathroom, with the gunmen reportedly being Anastasia, Genovese,

Joe Adonis

, and

Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel

;

[20]

Ciro “The Artichoke King” Terranova

drove the getaway car, but legend has it that he was too shaken up to drive away and had to be shoved out of the driver’s seat by Siegel.

[21]

[22]

However, according to

The New York Times

, “[A]fter that, the police have been unable to learn definitely [what happened]”. Reputedly Masseria was “seated at a table playing cards with two or three unknown men” when he was fired upon from behind. He died from gunshot wounds to his head, back, and chest.

[18]

Masseria’s autopsy report shows that he died on an empty stomach.

[23]

No witnesses came forward, though “two or three” men were observed leaving the restaurant and getting into a stolen car.

[24]

No one was convicted in Masseria’s murder as there were no witnesses and Luciano had an alibi.

Xem thêm: Watch Douluo Continent

The new Mafia structure[

edit

]

With the death of Masseria, the war ended. Maranzano organized the Mafia in New York City using a clear structure and hierarchy by dividing the main Italian gangs in New York into

Five Families

.

[7]

Each family had a

boss

,

underboss

,

consigliere

,

capos

,

soldiers

, and associates. While associates could come from any background, the higher ranks had to be “

made men

“, required in most eras to be full-blooded Italian Americans.

[25]

[26]

[7]

Shortly after Masseria’s death, Maranzano announced that the Five Families would be led by Luciano,

Joe Bonanno

,

Joseph Profaci

,

Vincent Mangano

and

Thomas Gagliano

.

[27]

Except for

New York City

, the major urban areas in the

Northeast

and

Midwest

were organized into one family per city by Maranzano; due to the size of organized crime in New York, it was organized into five separate families. The bosses of the Five Families of New York were to be Luciano (now the

Genovese crime family

), Profaci (now the

Colombo crime family

), Gagliano (now the

Lucchese crime family

), Maranzano (now the

Bonanno crime family

), and

Frank Scalice

(now the

Gambino crime family

). Maranzano called a meeting of crime bosses in

Wappingers Falls, New York

, where he declared himself

capo di tutti capi

(“boss of all bosses”).

[7]

[25]

Each crime family was to be headed by a boss, who was assisted by an

underboss

(the third-ranking position of

consigliere

was added somewhat later). Below the underboss, the family was divided into crews, each headed by a

caporegime

, or capo, and staffed by soldiers. The soldiers would often be assisted by associates, who were not yet members. Associates could also include non-Italians who worked with the family, and would include

Meyer Lansky

and

Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel

.

[7]

Death of Maranzano[

edit

]

Maranzano’s reign as capo di tutti capi was short-lived. Although Maranzano was slightly more forward-thinking than Masseria, Luciano had come to believe that Maranzano was even more greedy and hidebound than Masseria had been.

[19]

[28]

[29]

On September 10, 1931, he was shot and stabbed to death in his

Manhattan

office by a team of Jewish triggermen (recruited by Lansky), which included

Samuel “Red” Levine

,

Bo Weinberg

, and

Bugsy Siegel

.

[7]

[30]

With both Maranzano and Masseria out of the way, it was easier for the Young Turks, led by Luciano, to assume control of the way things functioned in New York City. The first agenda on the table was the reformation and restructuring of the American Mafia. Luciano envisioned the future of the American Mafia in the form of a major corporation. He believed that this would increase cooperation, reduce conflict and ensure a plain sailing governance by the Mafia as a whole. Since Maranzano had formed a basic structure that was in the process of being put into effect, Luciano decided to retain the concept to a large extent. Owing to his clear disregard for orthodox ideologies that did not have any profitable consequences, Luciano allowed for more flexibility in the structure, allowing for the inclusion of other societal groups like the Jews to involve themselves with the families. In Joe Bonanno’s autobiography A Man of Honor, he states: “We revised the old custom of looking toward one man, one supreme leader for advice and the settling of disputes. We replaced leadership by one man with leadership by committee. We opted for a parliamentary arrangement whereby a group of the most important men in our world would assume the function formerly performed by one man.”

[31]

In the aftermath of the Maranzano hit, there was believed to have been a massive purge of “old-timer” mafiosi, the so-called “

Night of the Sicilian Vespers

“. These rumors were seemingly confirmed by the testimony of

Joseph Valachi

, but a later study found no signs of such massive violence occurring.

[32]

[33]

Luciano formed “

The Commission

” to oversee all Mafia activities in the United States and serve to mediate conflicts between families, eliminating the capo di tutti capi position.

[34]

[31]

In the end, both of the traditional factions in the New York Mafia lost the war. The real winners were the younger and more ruthless generation of mobsters, headed by Luciano. With their ascension to power, organized crime was poised to expand into a truly national and multi-ethnic combination.

[25]

[35]

Popular culture[

edit

]

  • The 1981 movie

    Gangster Wars

    and the 1991

    Mobsters

    are partly fictionalized accounts of the Castellammarese War, while 1981’s

    The Gangster Chronicles

    TV miniseries covers the war over a few of its thirteen episodes. All of these cover events from the point of view of Luciano.

  • Events from the war (most notably the assassination of Maranzano) are fictionalized in

    Mario Puzo

    ‘s novel

    The Godfather

    .

  • The 1973 Charles Bronson movie

    The Stone Killer

    is a fictionalized story of a complicated plot to assassinate the heads of organized crime families using Vietnam veterans. The plot is the brainchild of an elderly mafioso who has been obsessed since 1931 with avenging the “Night of the Sicilian Vespers” murders, supposedly orchestrated by Lucky Luciano.

  • The war is one of the main plot elements of the

    final season

    of

    Boardwalk Empire

    .

  • AMC’s

    The Making of the Mob: New York

    also covers the war.

Xem thêm: Chinese TV Drama Apologizes For Plagiarizing His Dark Materials

See also[

edit

]

  • Sicilian Mafia

References[

edit

]

Notes

  1. ^

    Critchley, David (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America. New York: Routledge. p. 165.

    ISBN

     

    978-0415990301

    .

  2. ^

    Sifakis, Carl (2005).

    The Mafia Encyclopedia

    . New York: Checkmark Books. p. 56.

    ISBN

     

    978-0816056958

    .

  3. ^

    Sifakis, (2005). pp. 56–57

  4. ^

    Marc, Mappen (2013). Prohibition Gangsters: The Rise and Fall of a Bad Generation. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

    ISBN

     

    978-0813561158

    .

    OCLC

     

    852899302

    .

  5. ^

    Critchley, (2008). p. 165

  6. ^

    Nate, Hendley (2010). American Gangsters, Then and Now: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.

    ISBN

     

    978-0313354519

    .

    OCLC

     

    727948429

    .

  7. ^

    a

    b

    c

    d

    e

    f

    Raab, Selwyn (2006).

    Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America’s Most Powerful Mafia Empires

    . St. Martin’s Griffin. pp. 

    22–35

    .

    ISBN

     

    978-0312361815

    .

  8. ^

    Sifakis, (2005). p. 323

  9. ^

    a

    b

    Critchley, (2008). p. 172

  10. ^

    a

    b

    Critchley, (2008). p. 175

  11. ^

    Sifakis, (2005). p. 277

  12. ^

    Hortis, C. Alexander (2014).

    The Mob and the City: The Hidden History of How the Mafia Captured New York

    . Amherst, New York: Prometheus. p. 81.

    ISBN

     

    9781616149246

    .

    Archived

    from the original on 2020-04-13. Retrieved 2019-12-14.

  13. ^

    Critchley, David (2009).

    The Origin of Organized Crime in America

    . New York: Routledge. pp. 178, 180, 215–223.

    ISBN

     

    9781135854935

    .

    Archived

    from the original on 2020-04-13. Retrieved 2019-12-14.

  14. ^

    “Wealthy Baker Slain; Police Hint at Mafia: 2 Men Seen Running From Place”

    .

    Brooklyn Daily Eagle

    . 15 July 1930.

    Archived

    from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016 – via

    Newspapers.com

    .

  15. ^

    Dash, Mike (2010). The First Family: Terror, Extortion, Revenge, Murder, and the Birth of the American Mafia. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 376.

    ISBN

     

    978-0345523570

    .

  16. ^

    Critchley, (2008). p. 181

  17. ^

    Critchley, (2008). pp. 182–183

  18. ^

    a

    b

    Critchley, (2008). p. 185

  19. ^

    a

    b

    Selwyn Raab (2005).

    Five Families

    . Thomas Dunne Books.

    ISBN

     

    9781429907989

    .

  20. ^

    Pollak, Michael (June 29, 2012).

    “Coney Island’s Big Hit”

    .

    The New York Times

    .

    Archived

    from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2012.

  21. ^

    Sifakis, (2005). pp. 87–88

  22. ^

    Martin A. Gosch; Richard Hammer; Lucky Luciano (1975).

    The Last Testament of Lucky Luciano

    . Little, Brown. pp. 

    130–132

    .

    ISBN

     

    978-0-316-32140-2

    .

  23. ^

    “Giuseppe Masseria”

    . New York Mafia 1900-1920. GangRule.

    Archived

    from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.

  24. ^

    Critchley, (2008). p. 186

  25. ^

    a

    b

    c

    “A Chronicle of Bloodletting”

    .

    Time

    . July 12, 1971. Archived from

    the original

    on February 4, 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2012.

  26. ^

    Dash, Mike (2010). The First Family: Terror, Extortion, Revenge, Murder, and the Birth of the American Mafia. New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 384–386.

    ISBN

     

    978-0345523570

    .

  27. ^

    Lupo, Salvatore (2015). The Two Mafias: A Transatlantic History, 1888-2008. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 123.

    ISBN

     

    978-1-137-49135-0

    .

  28. ^

    Raab, pp. 28-29

  29. ^

    Sifakis, Carl (1987).

    The Mafia Encyclopedia

    .

    New York City

    : Facts on File.

    ISBN

     

    0-8160-1856-1

    .

  30. ^

    Dennis Eisenberg; Uri Dan; Eli Landau (1979). Meyer Lansky: Mogul of the Mob. Paddington Press: distributed Grosset & Dunlap. pp. 140–141.

    ISBN

     

    978-0-448-22206-6

    .

  31. ^

    a

    b

    “The Commission’s Origins”

    . The New York Times. 1986.

    Archived

    from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2017.

  32. ^

    Raab, (2005). p. 137

  33. ^

    Maas, Peter (1968). The Valachi Papers (1986 Pocket Books ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 83.

    ISBN

     

    067163173X

    .

  34. ^

    Capeci, Jerry (2004). The complete idiot’s guide to the Mafia. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books. pp. 31–46.

    ISBN

     

    978-1-59257-305-9

    .

    OCLC

     

    57428053

    .

  35. ^

    Critchley, (2008). p. 197

Sources[

edit

]

  • Sifakis, Carl (2005).

    The Mafia Encyclopedia

    . New York: Checkmark Books.

    ISBN

     

    978-0816056958

    .

  • Raab, Selwyn (2006).

    Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America’s Most Powerful Mafia Empires

    .

    St. Martin’s Griffin

    .

    ISBN

     

    978-0312361815

    .

  • Critchley, David (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: The New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. New York:

    Routledge

    .

    ISBN

     

    978-0415990301

    .

  • Dash, Mike (2010). The First Family: Terror, Extortion, Revenge, Murder and The Birth of the American Mafia. New York:

    Ballantine Books

    .

    ISBN

     

    978-0345523570

    .

Retrieved from “

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castellammarese_War&oldid=1080507520

Chuyên mục: App

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Back to top button